Socialno delo, Vol. 43 (2004), Part 4
Trade of Women's Bodies and Souls in Slovenia until the end of 19th Century - 175, (Abstract)
Needs of Women with Recurring Mental Health Problems - 185, (Abstract)
Presentations of Suicide in the Slovenian Press - 191, (Abstract)
Relatives' Care for the People with Severe Psychiatric Diagnoses - 201, (Abstract)
Foundations - 207, (Abstract)
Grounded Theories in the Qualitative Research in Social Work - 215, (Abstract)
Trade of Women's Bodies and Souls in Slovenia until the end of 19th Century
Western researchers of gender suggest that women have been treated, historically, as bodies that serve the nation (delivering babies) and the master (as wives and household workforce). Slovenian research in the history of women, too, uncovers ideologies and practices that reduce women to their bodies. The earliest records on woman trade on what is presently the Slovenian territory date from the first centuries A. D., either as the trade of slaves or of brides. Rebelling women have been punished more severely than men. Their act was a double offence, violating written as well as unwritten laws - by entering the public domain they changed their prescribed position. Their punishment was harsher in counter-reformation pogroms, as witches they were more liable to persecution, to burning at stakes and to other forms of murder.
Keywords: history, rituals, punishment.
Dr. Vesna Leskošek is a senior lecturer at the University of Ljubljana Faculty of Social Work and a researcher at the Peace Institute, Ljubljana.
Vesna Švab, Urban Groleger
Needs of Women with Recurring Mental Health Problems
The course of severe and recurring mental disorder in women is more favourable but more frequently erupting than in men. The latter is considered as due to heavier and more specific stressful overloads, such as material deprivation, exposure to sexual and physical violence, and care for children. Consequently the treatment of women with recurring mental health problems in all mental health services needs to be adjusted to their needs. Research has also shown that women more often and sooner find help when in mental distress, and that they become less socially withdrawn on account of hospitalisation and the effects of distress; they retain better social functioning and greater emotional engagement; their dependency upon psychotropic drugs is less frequent or intense; and the risk of suicide is somewhat smaller with them. However, the relation of severe mental disorder to poverty and physical and sexual abuse necessitates linked and coordinated performance of both medical and social services of mental health. A successful recovery is only possible when the services accommodate the users' actual needs, which are of both medical and social nature, in their natural environment.
Keywords: psychiatric treatment, psychosocial care, stressful overload.
Dr. Vesna Švab is a senior lecturer at the University of Ljubljana Medical Faculty, the chairwoman of the ŠENT association of psychiatric patients, and the head of the rehabilitation unit of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic. Urban Groleger is a psychiatrist at the same Clinic.
Duška Knežević Hočevar, Sanja Cukut
Presentations of Suicide in the Slovenian Press
The authors discuss the discourse on suicide in Slovenian press over the last three decades. The main assumption is that the chief interpreters of suicidal behaviour are medical experts, and that the journalistic reports on suicide are principally located within the framework of the classical theory of modernisation. Analyses of press clippings show that most authors attribute the cause of suicide to the so-called negative effects of socio-economic progress, notably alienation. Only in the last decade explanations emerged that take resort to environmental and genetic factors. The authors find that the rhetoric on suicide has also been determined by political events. The number of articles significantly increases during the establishment of independence, when suicide is recognised as a "national catastrophe".
Keywords: rhetoric of the media, individual alienation, social pathology.
Dr. Duška Knežević Hočevar is a research fellow at the Institute of Medical Sciences of the Scientific Research Centre at the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Sanja Cukut, a sociologist, is an associate of the same Institute.
Relatives' Care for the People with Severe Psychiatric Diagnoses
The paper is based on the experiences of daily work with users and their relatives. She finds that the relatives' - not even the mothers' - care for their folks is not a matter of course. Families in which a long-term mental disorder emerges have developed behavioural-relational patterns that often prevent the development and progress of family members. In these families one can observe much devotion but also many scenarios of survival that may be lethal for both user and the relative and a great burden to society. A holistic approach, especially continuing and flexible work in multidisciplinary teams, might improve the outcome of services and the quality of life of people with long-term psychosocial problems and those around them.
Keywords: long-term psychosocial problems, community care, ecological support.
Suzana Oreški is a social worker, employed at the Association Altra - Committee for Innovations in Mental Health.
The functioning of the foundation as a legal form of non-governmental organisations may be understood through the survey of pertinent legislation. Based on the assumption that this form is too seldom used in Slovenia, the author scrutinises its character, thus finding the possible obstacles against its being used more frequently. For the potential founders the main obstacle seems to be the strong presence of the state in the creation, operation and closing down of a foundation. Instead, private institutes are used. The finances that the founder provides for a private institute are not officially registered as they are for a foundation, which makes the founding procedure simple and flexible. Proposed new legislation will abolish private institutes, without, however, making the foundation any easier to establish and run. At present, the impact of the state is such that they can hardly be called 'non-governmental'.
Keywords: institutes, non-governmental organisations, social investment, flexibility.
Danica Hrovatič is a social worker and sociologist, employed by the Social Chamber of Slovenia.
Grounded Theories in the Qualitative Research in Social Work
The author attempts to qualify the theories deriving from his own qualitative research. This leads him to the much discussed question whether the construction of theories in social work on the basis of empirical research has a priority before taking over and applying theories from other sciences. He points up a great variety of the types of theories that resulted from his research, such as diagnosis (recognition of methods and problems described in theories), descriptive theory of professional actions, descriptive theory of social processes, typology, explanation, taxonomy, dialectic theory (theory of contradiction), theory of the implicit theory of actors, theory of the strategies of professional action. They have all been constructed in Glaser and Strauss's tradition of 'grounded theory'. A table of the author's qualitative research projects shows the methods used and the theoretical results.
Keywords: theory construction, theoretical reflection.
Dr. Blaž Mesec is an associate professor at the University of Ljubljana Faculty of Social Work.