Social work, Vol. 49, Issue 2-3
Etnical (un)sensitivity in education for social work - 73, (Abstract)
Ethnisation and patologisation of Roma people and Roma communities: Anthropological and social work concepts - 85, (Abstract)
With an engaged anthropology against racism and domination over Roma people - 99, (Abstract)
Multiculturalism and position of Roma community in Slovenia - 109, (Abstract)
Roma people in Ljubljana: Uncertain legal statuses as one of the reasons of radical social exclusion - 121, (Abstract)
A right to stay: The case of the settlement at Koželjeva street in Ljubljana - 133, (Abstract)
Etnical (un)sensitivity in education for social work
Antiracist social work theory and practice in Slovenia are still at a relatively early stage of their development. The lack of an explicit public discourse about exclusion has constructed and maintained racist practice in the field of social work. The effects are still evident in today's practice. The reason is to be found in the reluctance of ethnicity issues in the field of education for social work, especially in the “old” study programme (from 1955 to 1992). The article is a part of a doctoral dissertation and explicitly discusses a sensitive topic in social work i.e. the contribution of social work practice to social exclusion of members of ethnic minorities in Slovenia. The main thesis is that social work education in Slovenia has neglected ethnic sensitive discourses. This is shown from three main methodological perspectives: analysis of diploma works of social work students until September 2008, analysis of study literature from 1955 until September 2008, and analysis of a questionnaire with lecturers and assistants from the Faculty of Social Work in Ljubljana.
Keywords: ethnicity, Roma people, rasism, ethnical unsensitivity, education for social work
Špela Urh, PhD, is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Work. She delves into questions pertaining to ethnicity and into other topical subjects in the field of social work, such as disabled persons, foster families, adoptions. Contact: +3861/2809276, email@example.com.
Ethnisation and patologisation of Roma people and Roma communities: Anthropological and social work concepts
Theoretical concepts within antiracist social work are dealt with: ethnisation and pathologisation of ethnic minorities, the construction of »otherness«, the »difference« and the processes of “social distance”. Ethnisation is a process where the characteristics and specificities, including the needs of an ethnic group are seen exclusively as ethnic markers and ethnicity itself as the marker of otherness. Pathologisation is a process where the specific characteristics of individuals and groups are seen as natural, inborn, and different medical and psychological categories are used in order to define these “inborn” specificities. The minorities are seen as being prone to illnesses, pathological violence, and lesser intelligence. These socially constructed individualised and collectivised specificities are used also for explaining social vulnerability such as poverty, exclusion and marginalisation.
Keywords: ethnisation, pathologisation, »difference«, social distance, transcultural psychiatry
Professor Darja Zaviršek, PhD in sociology, is a Chair of the Department of Social Justice and Inclusion at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. She is the president of the Eastern European Sub-regional Association of the Schools of Social Work of the IASSW. She is a honorary professor of the University of Applied Sciences Alice Salomon Berlin. Contact: +3861/3006231, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alenka Janko Spreizer
With an engaged anthropology against racism and domination over Roma people
A transfer of knowledge concerning aspects of ethnic or racial domination against Roma people is described. The author’s participation in demonstrations and her efforts to transfer the informed knowledge about Roma people in public in Slovenia, are analyzed. Many scientists of culture and society of Roma people were more or less involved in contesting, and engaged in discussions on the stereotipization of Roma people. Different definitions of public activities are given, which are known in anthropology as public anthropology. They deal with transfer of anthropological knowledge to the general public. Critical studies of Roma people are then briefly presented. The author’s own anthropological engagement in the case of the Strojan family is analysed. The central thesis of this article is that efforts to transfer the informed knowledge of studies examining various aspects of Roma life, is essential, being the only way to prevent the operation of mechanisms of racial domination.
Keywords: Roma people, social anthropology of Roma people, public anthropology, analytic of racial domination
Alenka Janko Spreizer, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Social Anthropology and Research Associate at the University of Primorska, Faculty of Humanities Koper, Department of Anthropology and Institute of multicultural studies, Titov trg 5, 6000 Koper. Contact: email@example.com, tel.: + 386 (0)40 437 088.
Multiculturalism and position of Roma community in Slovenia
Theoretical questions about the characteristics of society in the late modernity, as they were perceived by prominent sociologists like Anthony Giddens, Ulirch Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, are dealt with. While Giddens and Beck would agree that individual's liberation from the structures of the traditional order (from the solid identity categories such as gender, class and ethnicity) is important for the post modern society, Bauman insists, that the characteristic of this society is, on the one hand, individualisation, on the other hand however, a re-birth of communalistic ideologies is emerging. Two of these ideologies are nationalism and fascism. When we become aware that the human societies are not ethnically homogeneous, we are starting debate on multiculturalism, which is also a subject of this article. In fact, the critique of liberalism given by Charles Taylor and his early communitarian multiculturalism is expressed. Liberal multiculturalism, a paradigm brought by Will Kymlicka, is analysed. The author then applies all the theoretical presumptions on the analysis of the position of Roma community in Slovenia. Their position shows many flaws of theories dealing with late modernity. The fact is that Slovenia is less successful in implementing political guidelines of liberal multiculturalism, which would offer adequate protection of the deprivileged minority groups.
Keywords: minorities, late modernity, the Other, identity, liberal multiculturalism
Julija Sardelić, a sociologist of culture and litterary comparativist, is a postgraduate student at Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Contact: +386 (0)41 677225, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Roma people in Ljubljana: Uncertain legal statuses as one of the reasons of radical social exclusion
The research study of Roma immigrants from former Yugoslavia to Ljubljana (it represents the first study of immigrant, so called non-autochthonous Roma people in urban area in Slovenia), points to their uncertain legal statuses as not enough salient issue in comparison with the issues of education, housing, cultural identity, and employment for instance. It identifies several reasons why legal statuses are problematic for Roma people in Ljubljana: immigration, system of marriages, illiteracy and erasure of approx. 22.000 citizens originating from former Yugoslavia in 1991, after secession of Slovenia. It points to the difficulties with which Roma population in Ljubljana is faced when pursuing employment, due to their uncertain legal statuses. In concluding part, several examples of activist projects are presented as examples of good practices which can assist Roma population in acquiring legal statuses. Political solution is recommended as well – the radical legalization of resident and working permits for Roma population. This would diminish social exclusion experienced by Roma people in Ljubljana, as well as by Roma people in EU countries.
Keywords: Roma people, migration, legal statuses, citizenship, the erased
Majda Hrženjak, PhD., sociologist, is a research fellow in the fields of social politics, gender studies and cultural studies at the Peace Institute, Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies, Metelkova 6, 1000 Ljubljana. Contact: email@example.com.
Jelka Zorn, Ana Marija Sobočan
A right to stay: The case of the settlement at Koželjeva street in Ljubljana
The right to live in an urban area, with accessible public infrastructure, is discussed; in this case of Roma people in Ljubljana. The settlement at Koželjeva street is examined, which carries a stigma due to its Roma inhabitants, deficient infrastructure and the characteristics of a slum. It is discussed how the space and its meanings influence the self-image of inhabitants of the settlement and their inclusion in the broader society, as well as the research process. The findings are derived from a field-research, theories on social capital, “social-mix” or multi-culturality and the right to inclusion and a place to live.
Keywords: Roma people, Roma settlement, research, Municipality of Ljubljana, ethnic discrimination
Jelka Zorn, PhD, is a senior lecturer in social work. She is employed at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. Contact: +3861 2809247, firstname.lastname@example.org. Ana Marija Sobočan is a Junior Researcher and an Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. Contact: +3861 2809247, email@example.com.