Socialno delo, Volume 55 (2016), Issue 5-6
Intersection between social work and sociology
Social work in the process of implementing ideals for a just society - 221, (Abstract) (Full text)
The work of women from charity to social work: a historical overview of the development of charity and the beginning of social work between 1850 and 1941 in the Slovene-speaking area - 239, (Abstract) (Full text)
\"Social service as a means for gaining souls”: Role of women Catholic religious in institutional care on the territory of present-day Slovenia - 253, (Abstract) (Full text)
Ideology of ownership and (re)production of inequality - 267, (Abstract) (Full text)
Images of helplessness, patronage, ans social oppresion of people with intellectual disabilities in Slovenia - 279, (Abstract) (Full text)
Culture or oppression?: an anti-oppressive perspective on women with mental health problems who survived their male partners’ violence - 289, (Abstract) (Full text)
Lea Šugman Bohinc
Social work in the process of implementing ideals for a just society
The article resonds to questions such as: how do we cope with the characteristic splits of contemporary social work, such as theory and practice, direct and indirect practice? How is the global standard of multiculturalism realised in higher education, research and practice of social work? How can we create stimulative conditions to develop a culture of co-existence that will embody ideals of multiculturality, global citizenship etc. in a more just society? The article argues for epistemologically reflexive, ethically sensitive and (self)critical attitude as well as narrative skills of collaboration in education, research and constructive dialogical practice of social work with individuals, families and groups as well as communities and systems of administration and social policy.
Keywords: theory, practice, complexity, multiculturality, global standards, narrative practice
Lea Šugman Bohinc, PhD, Psych., Systemic Psychotherapist (ECP), Assist. Prof. at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana, introduces and explores sciences of complexity, such as cybernetics and synergetics, and develops maps of dialogical, narrative practice of collaboration in the field of psychosocial support and help. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Irena Selišnik, Ana Cergol Paradiž
The work of women from charity to social work: a historical overview of the development of charity and the beginning of social work between 1850 and 1941 in the Slovene-speaking area
The authors present the basic concepts of charity, which were developed in the second half of the 19th century in the Slovene-speaking area, and in which women were active. They address the development of the first female charity associations in Carniola and their forms of operation and concepts that, in some segments, exceeded the "traditional charity". The principles of the operation of women's associations were put into practice in various forms of help and were differently developed in the three political camps in the Slovene-speaking area. However, even before the First World War, ideas about reformist social work were spread from Vienna to the Slovene-speaking area, and they were brought to life on the border of the Slovene territory in Trieste. The expansion of charitable work and the massive involvement of women in charitable associations during the First World War resulted in an early state approach to social work in the interwar period, in particular through the engagement of Alojzija Štebi and Angela Vode. Especially Alojzija Štebi developed social work through her service at the commission for social care of the national government of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in Ljubljana. Her work is presented in detail, also through the newly discovered archival materials.
Keywords: social policy, history, institutionalisation, associations, care, child protection
Irena Selišnik, PhD, is an Assistant Professor at the Department of History, the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. She holds courses on Slovene social and political history of 19th century. She published a book about the first women in Slovenian politics. Contact: email@example.com. Ana Cergol Paradiž, PhD, is an Assistant Professor for History at the Department of History, the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Currently she is taking part in the research focused on women in the First World War. She published a book Eugenics on Slovene-speaking territory (2016). Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
\"Social service as a means for gaining souls”: Role of women Catholic religious in institutional care on the territory of present-day Slovenia
The number of women Catholic religious in Slovenia, like in other European countries, started to grow at the end of the 19th century, and the process continued until the middle of the 20th century. Women were joining religious orders and congregations, which were taking care of various institutions, such as schools, hospitals, orphanages. The article presents the role, which women Catholic religious played in the field of social work – before social work was professionalized and secularized. Social and other work carried out by these women was unique, since they were primarily seen as religious workers and treated as Christ’s Brides (religious elements of occupation). They were members of a hierarchically structured organization (subordinated to church organization) and were special labour force without family or other private obligations (always on disposal). The article aims to fulfil a gap in understanding a history of social work on the territory of the present-day Slovenia, because it is important for current and future development of social work. Especially when social rights are being reduced and the ambitions of religious organizations to widen their services in the fields of secular organizations are increasing.
Keywords: women’s monasticism, social work, history, religion, organisations
Sonja Bezjak, PhD, is a sociologist. Recently, she has researched women Catholic religious. From this field she published a monograph entitled Christ’s brides, Slovenian Catholic women’s monasticism in the 20th century (2011), and several scientific papers. Contact: email@example.com.
Ideology of ownership and (re)production of inequality
Western societies have in the recent years become societies of homeowners. This is the product of state policies of privatization of social housing, promotion of home ownership and neglect of rental market. These kinds of policies are based on the assumption that home ownership is the most desirable, highest and the right form of solving the housing question. The upgrade of policies that promote home ownership are practices of bonding social rights on assets, which literature calls “asset-based keynesianism”. This state necessarily leads to the exclusion and reinforcement of inequalities between citizens on different locations, between different generations and mostly between those who have the access to assets and those who do not have this privilege. With strengthening of financialization, commodification of housing, concentration of demand because of uneven development in capitalism and privatization of common wealth, housing market is becoming one of the key places of not only reproduction, but also production of inequality. The article focuses on the role that home ownership plays in the creation and reinforcement of inequality. It also looks at the way state policies not only promote home ownership, but also use it as a tool for privatization of state social roles.
Keywords: housing, neoliberalism, housing policy, commodification, market.
Klemen Ploštajner holds a Masters degree in sociology from Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. As an activist and researcher, he actively deals with housing policies, the production and management of cities, and ecology. He is a co-founder of housing cooperative Zadurgator, which tries to politicize the housing issues with research and public intervention projects. In 2016 he received the Open Society Effective Activism Project schoolarship. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Images of helplessness, patronage, ans social oppresion of people with intellectual disabilities in Slovenia
The study addresses a neglected area of research of everyday life experiences and oppression of people with intellectual disabilities in the Slovene society. They are a marginalized social group whose voice goes often unheard. Despite the stereotypical societal notions about people with intellectual disabilities being defined as eternal children, the research reveals a lack of recognition of their cultural, social and political power, and gives an inventory of their fears, anxieties and uncertainties in everyday life. The aim of the study is to gain an insight into their daily life in the transition from their completion of education to their use of social services intended for adults. The paper presents some findings based on observation with participation and on the group interview with people with intellectual disabilities in five organizations that provide social services to them. It shows that patronizing of the persons with disabilities and unequal power relations between service users and staff in organizations that provide adult services to persons with intellectual disabilities, is preserved and reproduced through language, organized activities and institutionalized violence. The goal of the research is to open theoretical space for social work action and change, in order to support people with intellectual disabilities in their transition from education to employment and therefore to increase their range of possible life outcomes.
Keywords: handicap, social security, social justice, inequality, violence.
Gašper Krstulović, PhD, is a researcher and assistant at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. His principal research interests include: social inclusion of people with disabilities, social inequalities of people with handicaps, social work with people with disabilities. Contact: email@example.com.
Culture or oppression?: an anti-oppressive perspective on women with mental health problems who survived their male partners’ violence
Feminist theory is an important sociological theory that is very often used in social work research focusing on inequalities, power relations and social work gender analysis. Informed by feminist thoughts, domestic violence prevention system was first initiated in 1980’s and the lens of misuse/abuse power is emphasized; legal aids, provisions of resources such as protection orders, shelters, etc. are central to the work. In contrast to the traditional view that domestic violence is a private matter, the goal is to indicate that domestic violence is a matter that the State needs to intervene in, take the blame off the victims and place the responsibility on the abusers. Research pointed out that survivors who were reported to the system experienced fragmented services or services that did not meet their needs, and thus it resulted in survivors withdrawing from the helping process, so the problems still occur in their lives on a regular basis. This paper uses examples of women in Taiwan with mental health problems who survived their male partners’ violence and were trapped in multiple interlocking vulnerable situations, to demonstrate how various oppressive factors work in survivors’ context that stigmatized and constrained survivors. The analysis of vignettes indicated that women with mental health problems who survived their male partners’ violence, face many obstacles that put them in vulnerable situations, including female gender norms developed from patriarchal values, coping strategies sanctioned by patriarchal and collective social contexts, and social exclusion developed from discrimination towards mental health problems. Therefore ignoring these obstacles, legal aids and providing shelters are limited. By analyzing interlocking vulnerable factors in survivors’ context, it emphasizes the importance of a legal perspective as well as a comprehensive analysis of vulnerable factors in understanding survivors in inferior status. Implications for social work practice are addressed.
Keywords: feminist theory, Taiwanese culture, domestic violence, male perpetrators, sexual abuse.
Chu-Li Liu is a Professor at the Department of Social Work, Tunghai University, Taiwan. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Katja Sešek, Maja Ivačič
Heteronormative discourse at the Faculty of Social Work
The authors describe heteronormativity by applying critical discourse analysis and queer theories. They further explain which discourse practices reproduce heteronormativity, which we see as one of the most frequently used tools for creating the world and its normality boundaries while simultaneously labeling deviance. Normal thus becomes natural in discourse, which is why two genders (female and male), the always-presumed heterosexuality, monogamy and the desire to reproduce are seen as natural, as pre-social. By highlighting power relations, we demonstrate how heteronormativity serves to consolidate patriarchy, nationalism and capitalism; how it serves to construct social reality and legitimize only certain lifestyles. We use critical discourse analysis to research the presence of heteronormative discourses within the education for social work. We aim to demonstrate how social work plays part in exclusion by accepting such norms. We thus offer alternatives to social work practices, which are anti-discriminatory and critical of the existing system.
Keywords: gender, sexual orientation, patriarchy, family, critical discourse analysis, queer.
Katja Sešek is a student at a Master\'s degree program Social Inclusion and Justice in the Areas of Disability, Ethnicity and Gender at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. She exercises her main study and activist interests in the fields of genders and sexualities basing them on queer and feminist perspectives, all of which she incorporates in her experience-based lectures and research. Contact: email@example.com. Maja Ivačič is a student at a Master\'s degree program Social Inclusion and Justice in the Areas of Disability, Ethnicity and Gender at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. Her academic interests include migration, borders, queer commentaries and gender studies. She is an activist in a queer-feminist and anti-racist movement dedicated to fighting borders. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.